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The definition, function and comment of stage lighting
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The art of lighting the stage and using the lighting means for the 
characters and scenery, also known as stage lighting. Its role is to follow 
the performance requirements, according to the overall concept of stage art, 
using the technical equipment and means of stage lighting to match the 
actors to create a visual image on the stage.
The role of stage lighting in modern stage performances: 1 lighting 
performance, allowing the audience to see the actors' performances and 
scenes; 2 guiding the audience's line of sight; 3 shaping the characters, 
highlighting the emotions and showing the stage illusion; 4 creating the 
space environment needed in the drama 5 rendering the atmosphere in the 
drama; 6 showing the transition between time and space, highlighting the 
contradictions and conflicts of the drama and strengthening the stage 
rhythm, enriching the artistic appeal. Sometimes it also works with stage 
stunts.
In modern performances, the intensity, color, distribution of lighting 
areas, and movement of lights have greater flexibility and controllability. 
The artistic effect of the stage lighting is reflected by the progress of 
the performance and the constant change of the stage atmosphere. Stage 
lighting is a combination of space art and time art. The historical 
development of stage lighting is closely related to the evolution of drama 
and the advancement of science and technology.
According to the optical structure, the stage lamps can be divided into 
three categories: floodlights, spotlights and slides; according to the parts 
installed on the stage, there are face light, slap light, foot light, column 
light, top row light, sky light, ground light and flow. The division of 
light. A floodlight system is a luminaire that emits evenly soft light and 
illuminates a certain direction of light. Individual floodlights, overhead 
lights, foot lights, and curtain lights are commonly used to illuminate 
skylights, painting sets, or performance zones. A concentrating system is a 
luminaire that emits orientation and can control the extent of the zone. 
Generally, the principle of refraction is used to cast different spots 
through the lens. For example, a threaded soft-light lens produces a soft 
spot on the edges. A lamp that uses a reflective optical structure to 
achieve a concentrating effect is called a backlight. The slide system is to 
add a set of objective lenses in front of the spotlight to make it project. 
This kind of slide can be further divided into: 1 shooting slides using 
slide imaging; 2 shooting slides that cast cloud, water, fire and other 
active images on the scene through rotating disc chain; 3 using long focal 
length objective Make small spots visible. A follow-up light that highlights 
the protagonist's image; a 4 ellipsoidal concave mirror called a luminaire 
for a modeling light.
The stage lighting control system must be able to effectively control and 
deploy all the luminaires and produce a harmonious artistic effect. It 
consists of three parts: power distribution board, dimmer and total console.
The stage lighting design mainly carries out artistic conception 
according to the overall idea of the script, the director's requirements and 
the stage art, draws the layout design, and arranges the technical 
embodiment work. Lighting design should be able to use a variety of modeling 
methods to adapt to different styles of performance, such as performance 
requirements to show a realistic style, while others require the creation of 
abstract, freehand or metaphorical mood.
Early dramas have had an open-air or semi-open-air performance history, 
all using daylight as a light source. However, as the venue moved into the 
room or at night, stage lighting began to appear. According to the written 
records, after 1102, the Liangzhu of the Northern Song Dynasty in China 
performed "Hundred Plays" on the Lantern Festival. The platform was used as 
a stage for the downstairs, and there was a light ball on each side of the 
platform. Zhang Yu, internal combustion candle, this is the beginning of 
China's artificial light source. In the 16th century Europe, if it was 
performed outdoors at night, a xenon lamp was used as a light source. During 
the fifteenth to sixteenth centuries, Italian setters conducted experiments 
on shade lighting. At the beginning of the 17th century, the Italians did 
various experiments to control the dim light during the performance. In the 
French classical performances, I also tried to show how to change the time 
of day and night. Since the 18th century, the practice of extinguishing the 
audience's seat lights and leaving only the stage lighting has become a 
practice. When the Dresden Theatre performed the opera "Yeo" in 1755, there 
were as many as 8,000 candles lit on the stage. Since the 19th century, 
light sources have changed rapidly. 1808
The London Lanxin Theater first used gas lamps. Because the gas lamp can be 
uniformly controlled by the pipeline and can be promoted with light and dark 
changes. The British H. Drammont invented the lime lamp, which produces a 
light color similar to daylight or moonlight on the stage. In 1870, the 
United Kingdom used a lime lamp as a chasing light, and then painted it on a 
glass cover of a lime lamp to obtain a chromatic effect

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